_

_

_

-

-

XX

.

_

,

-

..

-13

-

-

-

-

,

.

. .

III -

III

IV ()

IV

(1818 - 1883)

-

- .

-

. .

..

Intel 8086

,

II (1894-1917

-

1

..

1

.

-

-

-

.-.

-

,

.

(494-300 . .

VIII

1

_

___

-

CAN

( )

-

-

, -

-

.

.

(494-300 . .

VIII

1

_

___

-

CAN

( )

-

-

, -

-

.

˨

- 1

- 2

-2

..

1

, ,

1

.

-

-

.

. . --

- , ,

.

..

WINDOWS FOR WORKGROUPS

PC-AT

()

2000

IBM

- ,

-

, ,

. .

1401

31 2000 1999

2000 1999

2000 1999

(1989-1993

-

-

1947

.

__

,

logica2

new

2

...

...

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

.doc

-

_

. .

Linux

---

,

1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

2

20

21

22

23

3

4

5

6

9

1985-1991

.

( )

,

,

, -

1921

_

1853-1856

-

-

( )

-

XIX

(IV-XIV )

XVIII

1

18

-

.

c -

,

__

_

_

( )

( )

-

.

. 2

-

..

(2- )

( )

.

( )

()

6

. .

-

-

2

21

_

2

1

2

2

1

.

-

-

˨

˨

-

- o

-

2_

-

-

-

4

-

-

, ,

12-

I

.

..

..

.

..

18

- ,

II

- I

-10

- -

IBM PC AT

.

- .

-

I - .

.

.

. . . .

. . .

. . ( )

.

SuperCalc4

.--

-

-

-

()

- )

()

XX

-

. .

20 ( , , )

-

, ,

-

, ,

.

-

1920-1930-

, lll -

-

.

.

- -

n

ScF3, HfF4 SnF2

,

-

,

.

.

Intel

FIDOnet

.

1929-1933 . - . .

-

Ψ

.

-

FAT

-

1

2

(XIV - XVI )

-

-

80386

Ҩ

-

XIX, XX

-

.

.. -

,

- DVD

()

Turbo-Prolo

- ,

.

.

_

(460-350 . ..)

..

-

-

-

-

_

.

-

XIX -

(1640-1646)

()

( 1994-95

,

,

, ,

- ,

- , ,

c

1

. -

.15(.)

-

_

()

I80X86

TCP-IP

.

BIOS

1 50000

Pascal

. .

.

-

..

Ҩ

POWER POINT

... ()

MS-DOS

, Ũ

WINDOWS

-

, .

-

.

2000

1998

1999

( 68 )

C

,

1917 .

2

3

4

5

FORTRAN

MS DOS

. MS DOS

Turbo Basic

19-20

BIOS Setu

-

-

-

- , ,

--

-

XX

II XX

-

2002

15 - 16

19 . - 1877-1878

PCI -

.

.

SPARC SUN MICROSYSTEMS

NORTON COMMANDER

... ()

8

- ( )

1812

2000 1999

()

SysInfo, PrintFx, FontEdit, Snipper

QUATTRO PRO

()

- .

.1

.2

..

2

3

PP P

. . -

Microsoft Office

.

. .

. .

(94)

-

-

..

.

.

..

-

-

PS2 IBM

IBM PC

c

-

PDA

..

-

XVIII

-

()

-

-

()

-

(3)

WWW

-

... ( )

( )

(- )

()

, 340-493 .

,

()

4%-

[2-]

2

,

,

,

-

, ,

..-

Internet

1

26 1984

16 1984

3 1987

-

,

-

. .

,

,

, ,

-

-

,

-

, ,

( )

..

CD-ROM

-

EXCEL

INTERNET

CD-ROM

80-90 (2002)

, ,

-

1

,

. .

.

.

- ,

I

Mathematics

, , 8080 8085

.

. , ,

-. WINDOWS

-

'' 20 ''

( )

,