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1. .

2. ǭ.

2.1 .

2.2 .

2.3 .

3. .

4.

 

 

 

 

1. .

 

- , , , , , - ; , . "" : "" - "" - . : - .

, : , , . - ( ), , ( ) ( , ..), () .

, . , , . , , , . - .

. , , , , , . , , , .

. . , , . ( , , , , , , .) , , , .

, , : , , ( ), . , -. , , , , (, ). :

) : WU = U/L * 1000

) : WZ = Z/L * 1000

) : PN=(U-Z)*1000/L = WU - WZ

 

L - , ; U - , Z - . , , , . , - . , -.

1985 . 19% . 50.8 . 1959 . 8.9 , 21.2% . 0.7%, . " 1984 ", 1959-1970 . 1.1%, 1970-1979 . - 0.6%, 1979-1985 . - 0.3% . 1959-1970 . 406 , 1970-1979 . 250 , 1979-1985 . - 190 .

, . , 1959 . 1985 . 41.9 50.8 21.2%, - 73.8% ( 19.2 33.2 ), 45.8% 65.3% . . 1959-1985 . 22.7 17.6 , 54.2% 34.7%; 1959-1970 . 5.7%, 1970-1979 . - 10.2%, 1979-1985 . - 8.3%; : 0.5%, 1.3%, 1.4% .

1959-1985 . . - - 26.0% 1959 27.4% 1984 . 12.1% 14.6% . : - 35.6% 33.2%, 26.3% 24.8% . , . , .

. ( 1959-1970 . - 23.6%; 1970-1979 .- 8.8%; 1979-1984 . - 3.6%), : ( 21.2%, 9.6% 3.9%); ( 50.9%, 20.4% 5.8%); ( 25.9%, 12.9% 3.6%). , , .

. (1959-1985 .) (2.7%) - (3.6%), (3.2%) (3.1%) . . , 26.2 , 19.4, - 16.4, - - 8.4 . , 1959-1970 . - (3.6%), . 1970-1979 . - (2.5%). . 1984 . - (15.1%), - (54.9%). , , . . - . , 1959-1970 . (-1.2%), 1970-1979 . 1979-1984 . - (-1.9%), - (-1.2%, -1.1%, -1.5%). - (0.4%, -0.3%, -0.6%).

1959-1970 . 89%, - 10.1% . 1970-1979 . 90.4% 9.6% . , . - . . , 1970-1979 . 51.6% . , , .

- 1989-1993 . , , ? , .

, 1989 51.7 , 1993 537 52 244 . , , , , , , , 1991 : -39147 1991 -184195 1993 . , 1 1994 52 114.4 . 288.1 1992 49.6 1993. , . ( 690981 1989 557467 1993 ) ( 600590 1989 741662 1993 ). -, , .

? 1 1994 67.9%, - 32.1% . 1985 2.6% . ( 90.5% 9.5% , , 41.1% 58.9% ), . , 1989-1993 . 8.8%, - 14.3% , 1.625 , 18.9%, 26.9, 1.4 . , , . , . - . , , - , . , .

2. .

 

, , , . -, . 1993 52 244.1 , - -184195 . , -3.5 1000 . , 1000 , , 1993 3.5 . . , , . , 1991 , 1993 . , 1991 3.5 , 1992 - 2.8 . 1993 288.1 49.6 , .

, , , , , . , , - .

2.1 .

, " ", , . . , , 1000 , :

 

,

.

52244.1 557467 10.78

2638.8 25489 9.66

1911.9 21355 11.17

1077.6 15540 14.51

3936.4 38954 9.97

5365.8 46344 8.68

1510.8 18690 12.47

1281.4 19264 15.15

2116.1 20881 9.94

- 1461.0 20261 13.97

4592.5 43225 9.48

1251.2 13990 11.24

2886.0 27094 9.43

2776.9 34717 12.58

1360.3 15248 11.29

2639.2 28185 10.75

1770.1 17651 10.04

1189.2 18212 15.43

1432.2 13829 9.72

1180.3 15086 12.86

3182.1 28270 8.97

1281.2 15433 12.14

1527.2 17876 11.76

1536.2 16432 10.76

945.8 12430 13.21

1393.9 12990 9.39

: ) ( 10 1000 ); ) (10-12 ) ( 12 ).

:

) , , , , , , , , .

) , , , , , , .

) , , , -, , , , , .

, , , , . , , , , , , . , , , .

, , . , ( ) , . .

.

2.2 .

1993 :

,

.

52244.1 741662 14.32

2638.8 32544 12.50

1911.9 31617 16.65

1077.6 14042 13.10

3936.4 56372 14.44

5365.8 79619 15.00

1510.8 22876 15.24

1281.4 13675 10.75

2116.1 29568 14.12

- 1461.0 16681 11.51

4592.5 57621 13.09

1251.2 20996 16.99

2886.0 43953 15.36

2776.9 31645 11.51

1360.3 18519 13.69

2639.2 36730 14.08

1770.1 29466 16.69

1189.2 14516 12.28

1432.2 24489 17.21

1180.3 16478 14.07

3182.1 47788 15.19

1281.2 16914 13.29

1527.2 23392 15.39

1536.2 25893 16.91

945.8 11527 12.18

1393.9 24744 17.84

, , : ) ( 13 1000 ); ) (13-15 1000 ); ) ( 15 1000 ).

, :

) , , -, , , .

) , , , , , , , ,

) , , , , , , , , , .

.

2.3 .

, , . :

10.78 14.32 -3.54

9.66 12.50 -2.84

11.17 16.65 -5.48

14.51 13.10 1.41

9.97 14.44 -4.47

8.68 15.00 -6.32

12.47 15.24 -2.77

15.15 10.75 4.40

9.94 14.12 -4.18

- 13.97 11.51 2.46

9.48 13.09 -3.61

11.24 16.99 -5.75

9.43 15.36 -5.93

12.58 11.51 1.07

11.29 13.69 -2.40

10.75 14.08 -3.33

10.04 16.69 -6.65

15.43 12.28 3.15

9.72 17.21 -7.49

12.86 14.07 -1.21

8.97 15.19 -6.22

12.14 13.29 -1.15

11.76 15.39 -3.63

10.76 16.91 -6.15

13.21 12.18 1.03

9.39 17.84 -8.45

, . : ) ( ); ) ( 0 - -4); ) ( -4) . :

) , , -, , ,

) , , , , , , , .

) , , , , , , , , , , .

- , , , , , -, , , . - . (, , ) , .

3.

 

, , . . , , , , . , , , . , - , - . , " - " . : ( ), ( ) , , , , , . . . - . , . .

. , , , , . , . , . , , . , : - - - .

, , . . . , , . , , , , . - . , (. ). , . - ( ), , , . - , 1989-1993 ., 2000- , -, , -11.4 1000 . , . , , - , , . , . , , , , , ( ). , - . , " ", . , , , , , , , , . .. : " ? , ! , ... , , , ".

, . , , , - , - ! . . - , . , , . , .. , , , . , , , , , .. . , , . , , , , , . " " ( , , ), ( , , , - "" ) . , . , - . , , - , , .

, , , , , -, , , :

-, , , , (.. , , );

-, , , , , .

4. :

1. .. " " ., " " 1985.

2. .. " " ., " " 1982 .

3. " " , 1974 .

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