TCP/IP

 

 

TCP/IP

.

:

" TCP/IP"

-74

: ..

1999

TCP/IP

TCP/IP

Internet,

.

-

,

,

.

,

, ,

,

. ,

TCP/IP,

Internet.

,

. ,

,

- ,

(17%)

(16%), -

(67%).

TCP/IP

.

, TCP/IP :

? IP (Internet Protocol) ,

;

? UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

,

IP

;

? TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

,

IP ;

? ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

,

IP,

, ,

;

? ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)

,

;

, Internet,

IP-.

-

,

,

, .

-

,

.

, - ,

,

.

-

,

.

,

,

. ""

"" "".

,

.

,

,

-

.

,

.

, ,

, ,

.

, .

()

,

.

,

( , , . .)

.

,

,

.

, , ()

,

,

,

.

( ) (remote network attacks).

, -, ,

, , -, ,

, ,

.

,

, ,

.

,

:

? : ,

( );

? : ,

, ;

? : ,

( )

;

? : ,

,

;

? : ,

, ,

, ,

;

? : ,

,

;

? : ,

;

? (sniffers): ,

.

,

;

? ;

? (

)

().

?

,

.

,

;

1998 NIST (http://csrc.nist.gov/) 237

,

.

:

? 29% - Windows.

: Unix.

" ".

.

, , .

? 20%

(,

, , ).

: ,

.

? 3% web- .

: WWW

.

? 4%

.

: ,

.

(

- ).

? 5%

.

:

(,

,

.)

1999

, 57% ,

", ". 30% ,

, 26% ,

.

FedCIRC

(http://www.fedcirc.gov) , 1998

130000

1100000 .

Internet

Internet

.

pp-p

(sniffer), ,

, ,

.

,

.

,

FTP TELNET (

), HTTP (

WEB- ,

web- ),

SMTP, POP3, IMAP, NNTP

( ) IRC (online-, chat).

web-,

,

.

,

(, SSL TLS,

SKIP, S-HTTP ..). ,

.

. -

, (

),

,

.

ARP- Internet

IP- Internet IP-

Ethernet-

( ),

Ethernet- (

).

Ethernet-

, ,

Ethernet- .

, ,

.

Internet ARP

(Address Resolution

Protocol). ARP

IP- Ethernet-

, .

:

ARP-, IP-

( )

Ethernet-.

, ,

. ,

ARP-,

ARP- Ethernet-. ARP-

Ethernet- ARP-,

.

- ,

"

"

:

? ARP-;

? ARP-

ARP-,

(

ARP-) Ethernet-,

ARP-;

? , ,

( );

ARP- , ,

.

DNS- Internet

, Internet

32- IP-,

.

IP-

.

,

IP-,

, IP-.

, Internet ,

(

hosts-),

IP-.

.

Internet, ,

.

,

IP-, ,

-

(DNS-).

Domain Name System

(DNS ).

DNS.

DNS- :

1. IP- DNS- DNS-,

,

IP- .

2. DNS-

.

IP- , DNS-

DNS-,

. ,

DNS- DNS-

DNS-.

,

.

, ,

DNS,

DNS-

DNS UDP,

,

TCP, ,

.

DNS-:

1. DNS-.

2.

DNS- ( IP-) DNS-

IP- DNS-.

3. IP-

IP- IP-

DNS- . DNS-

.

4. IP-

IP-

DNS- . DNS-

.

.

DNS-,

,

DNS-.

DNS- .

Internet DNS

DNS-.

hosts, DNS,

.

TCP UDP,

, ,

TCP

.

ICMP Internet

, .

Internet

(IP-).

,

.

Internet

. ,

, ,

, ,

IP-,

.

, Internet

ICMP,

.

ICMP-

Redirect Message.

ICMP- Redirect

Datagrams for the Host, ,

, IP-

.

.

,

,

,

.

ICMP-

Firewall.

,

ICMP- Redirect.

TCP- Internet

(hijacking)

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

Internet. ,

, .

,

, ,

.

TCP

TCP/IP,

.

TCP- TCP-

32- ,

. - Sequence

Number ( )

Acknowledgment Number ( ).

TCP-

. , ,

TCP- TCP-

,

.

,

.

,

.

,

.

SSL, S-HTTP, Kerberos ..

TCP-

TCP-

ISN

.

, Internet ( IPv4)

IP-

, ,

IP-, , ,

,

.

" ",

TCP-

.

,

( ).

- ,

, -

, ,

-,

. ,

"" :

,

.

.

Denial of Service

,

-.

3

(44.736 /c)

.

,

VPN -.

,

.

-

IP-. "-"

.

,

.

IPv4

,

.

,

.

,

,

. :

? Land IP-,

.

Windows

Windows NT 4.0 Service Pack 4

.

.

? teardrop bonk

,

IP-.

"" ,

,

.

Windows95/NT

Service Pack 4 Linux (2.0.0).

? WinNuke Windows- TCP/IP

Out Of Band (OOB)

( 139-) TCP-. .

Windows95/NT

.

,

.

WWW

World Wide Web

Web. Web

:

1.

2.

,

.

,

.

, (plug-ins),

ActiveX, Java,

JavaScript, VBScript, PerlScript,

Dynamic HTML.

,

-

, ,

html- ( VBScript

ActiveX-).

.

Cult of the Dead Cow

BackOrifice 2000,

WindowsNT

,

, , ,

.

:

? : , ;

,

" " ,

.

?

?

2000 Internet

, 2000

TCP/IP, - ,

Y2K , ,

.

:

?

.

? ,

.

?

.

?

.

?

.

? ,

.

? .

? .

2000

.

-

, .

Internet

,

, ARP-,

hosts

DNS-,

.

-. :

? - ;

? Firewall;

? ;

? (IDS Intrusion Detection

Systems ICE Intrusion

Countermeasures Electronics);

? (SATAN Security

Analysis Network Tool for

Administrator, SAINT, SAFEsuite, RealSecure .);

? .

Firewall

:

1. ;

2. Proxy-

Firewall-

. proxy-

proxy- Firewall;

3. "" IP-.

IP-.

.

,

.

:

1. .., .., .. Internet 2-

., . . .: ,

1999.

2. ., ., ., .. UNIX:

: . .

.: BHV, 1996

3. . . M.: ABF,

1996

4. "" (http://www.computerra.ru)

5. Server/Workstation Expert, August 1999, Vol. 10, No. 8.

6. , 01/1998, 06/1998

7. FidoNet: RU.NETHACK,

RU.INTERNET.SECURITY

8. BugTraq (BUGTRAQ@SECURITYFOCUS.COM)

9. HackZone (http://www.hackzone.ru)

10. (http://security.tsu.ru)

11. Internet Security Systems (http://www.iss.net)

12. . .: ; 1997

1

 

 

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