INTERNET

 

 

INTERNET

,

.

.

INTERNET.

: .

: .

: 513.

: .

:

.

: 14 1997 .

1997.

:

. 4

Internet? 4

Internet. 4

Internet? 5

Internet? 6

? 6

Internet. 7

, Internet. 7

. 7

. 7

(IP). 8

(). 9

. 10

? 10

. 10

. 11

. 11

. 13

Internet? 13

. 14

, . 14

. 14

. 15

. 16

Internet. 16

. 17

. 17

Internet. 18

Internet. 18

. 19

. 20

. 21

. 21

. 22

, ? 22

Internet ? 23

, . 23

Internet. 25

. 25

. 26

. 26

. 27

. 27

. 28

. 30

. 30

NSFNET. 30

. 31

:

1. , Internet.

5

2. Internet. 8

5. . 11

:

1. . 12

.

Internet - , .

Internet 15

150 .

7-10%.

Internet ,

,

, .

,

.

,

, .

Internet, -

,

,

.

, ,

, , Internet.

.

(

)

-

, , .

Internet

,

.

, Internet ,

-

.

, .

, -

Internet

.

- Internet.

20 .

. ,

, -

,

, .

Internet ,

.

1-2

.

, ,

, .

, -

, ..

"" (,

80-90%

).

Internet?

Internet.

1961 Defence Advanced Research Agency (DARPA)

. ,

ARPANET,

.

ARPANET.

- TCP/IP. TCP/IP -

, ,

.

ARPANET ,

,

. 1975

ARPANET

.

Defence Communication Agency (DCA),

Defence Information Systems Agency

(DISA). ARPANET ;

TCP/IP

.

1983 TCP/IP,

Military Standards (MIL

STD), .. , , ,

. DARPA

Berkley Software Design - TCP/IP Berkley (BSD)

UNIX.

UNIX TCP/IP.

TCP/IP ,

,

Internet . 1983

ARPANET MILNET,

Defence Data Network (DDN)

. Internet

: MILNET

ARPANET. 1991

ARPANET , Internet ,

, .

1

, Internet 4 1969

3,2 1994.

Internet ,

(Unix, VMS), TCP\IP

-

.

1. , Internet.

Internet?

, .

: Internet , ,

IP,

.

,

,

.

Internet , -

IP.

Internet,

(, BITNET,

DECnets .) Internet.

, ,

,

. Internet?

,

.

Internet

-

.

, Internet,

.

Internet Unix VMS.

NetBlazer Cisco, Unix.

Internet

, -

,

. Internet

, -

, , ..

Internet?

Internet :

,

. Internet ,

, .

, Internet,

.

Internet .

Internet

Internet, ISOC (Internet Soci-

ety). ISOC ,

Internet.

, -

Internet.

IAB (Internet Architecture Board

Internet)

,

. IAB ,

(,

). Internet

.

. IAB

, ,

.

-

, IAB ,

.

, IAB ( ),

. , Internet

32- ;

.

, IAB. ,

,

.

Internet

, -

. Internet

IETF

(Internet Engineering Task Force). IETF

;

Internet.

, IETF

. (

, ,

.) IETF

; ,

.

,

,

.

.

,

, , IAB

.

?

:

. ,

Internet. ;

Internet, Inc. ,

, Internet

.

. NSFNET, NASA

Science Internet ..

,

.

, ,

, Internet

.

, Internet , .

-

.

,

.

, ,

Internet :

Internet 56

( ,

).

Internet,

, ,

.

Internet.

, Internet - -

TCP/IP. ,

TCP/IP ,

Internet.

, ,

. TCP/IP -

, internet. ,

internet, "internet". ,

internet, Internet.

TCP/IP

(

). Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Internet Protocol

(IP). , Internet

, Internet

TCP/IP-,

, , .

Internet 7

:

, , , ,

,

.

(..

).

. Internet

( ) -

().

, -

.

-

SLIP (Serial Line Interface

Protocol) PPP (Point to Point Protocol).

- .

,

.

IP (Internet

Protocol) ARP (Address Resolution Protocol).

.

TCP (Transmission

Control Protocol) UDP (User

Datagram Protocol).

,

-

. Internet TCP UDP

,

UUCP (Unix to Unix Copy Protocol).

. -

,

, , Unix-,

.

: telnet-, FTP-

, Gopher-, NFS-, NNTP (Net News Transfer

Protocol), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer

Protocol), POP2 POP3 (Post Office Protocol) ..

.

, Internet.

.

.

-

,

.

,

.

.

, -

- .

.

, Internet

,

, .

,

,

; , Internet

.

, ,

Internet. .

,

.

(,

), ,

.

, , ,

.

Internet

.

.

.

,

. ,

,

;

.

(IP).

.

, Internet ,

.

?

Internet

( -

) .

Internet, ,

(. .2).

2. Internet.

Ethernet

. ;

,

(), , ,

.

, ,

.

-, ,

, .

,

,

. ,

,

. Internet:

,

, , .

Internet , ?

, ,

,

,

. ,

. ,

,

,

Internet.

. (Internet

Protocol, IP) , ..

, , ,

.

, ,

.

.

.

Internet - ,

256.

, :

192.112.36.5

128.174.5.6

. Internet

,

,

.

, ,

. Internet .

. 50 Kelly Road, Hamden, CT.

Hamden, CT

.

, ,

. Kelly Road

;

,

.

,

,

.

, Internet

,

,

.

(

) ,

IP- , , .

1500 .

,

.

,

: ,

.

Internet ,

. ,

, .

IP- ,

,

.

, , .

? -,

1500 .

, , ,

.

? -, .

,

. ,

Internet .

? -,

.

, ,

.

Internet.

-

,

.

().

(Transmission Control Protocol, TCP),

IP.

, - ,

?

: ,

.

( ,

) .

.

, , .

, , ,

.

, .

. , , IP

.

,

.

- ,

.

,

.

, , .

,

. .

. ,

. ,

, .

,

.

.

.

-

, .. , , ,

.

(

), ,

,

.

. -

; ,

.

, , ,

, .

,

. (user

datagram protocol, UDP)

.

TCP

IP

UDP,

IP.

UPD ,

,

. UDP

,

, .

, ,

. - ,

20-30 . UDP- ,

IP- .

, ,

,

UDP- . ,

?

: ,

.

?

-

, .

.

,

,

.

- ,

, .

,

.

,

UDP.

.

:

,

-. Internet

(

, ), ,

,

. 5-14 ,

Internet.

,

:

,

. , , -

.., ,

,

. ,

connection refused, Unable to connect to

remote host: refused; .

, .

,

;

, .

.

,

. ,

, -

. Internet .

Internet

.

, . -,

,

. ,

, ,

-

. ,

.

, Internet ,

. (NIC)

.

(, ), NIC

. , hosts ( ),

. ,

. ,

.

Internet , ,

.

,

. , -

.

,

.

(Domain Name System, DNS).

.

.

. :

ux.cso.uiuc.edu

nic.ddn.mil

yoyodyne.com

,

. -

( ) .

ux.cso.uiuc.edu

ux IP - . (. ).

3. .

cso,

, ,

. cso

(uiuc). uiuc

(edu). ,

edu

; uiuc.edu

..

,

. uiuc

ncsa,

. ,

, ,

, (ncsa.uius.edu).

cso

, ,

. ,

edu , ,

,

Internet .

fred,

, (,

fred.cso.uiuc.edu fred.ora.com).

,

.

edu?

,

.

.

1. .

1.

com

2.

edu

(, ..)

3.

gov

( )

4.

mil

(, ..)

5.

org

6.

net

Internet ,

.

,

. ca

,

:

hockey.guelph.ca

300;

170 .

Internet -

IAHC (International Ad Hoc Committee).

, -

, com, net, org, :

? firm ;

? store ;

? web ,

WWW;

? arts ;

? rec ;

? info ;

? nom , ,

,

.

, IAHC , 28

. ,

,

Network Solutions.

,

Network Solutions National Science Foundation 1998 .

85

.

50 .

.

. , ,

20 500

.

.

, ,

,

, .

, - .

,

,

. Internet

,

.

, , ux.cso.uiuc.edu,

. ,

() DNS,

.

DNS

. :

? ,

,

. , ,

-

, , .

? , -

.

, DNS

,

-.

.

? , , .

?

,

,

(

, , edu).

,

edu. ,

uiuc.

cso. , cso

ux, ,

.

,

-

hosts. , ,

,

(

).

hosts.

,

DNS,

.

Internet?

Internet . Internet

, ,

.

-

, .

-

.

, ,

. ,

;

, , .

,

, ,

.

, , , ,

, .

, .

.

Internet :

? Internet

,

.

? Internet . -,

,

,

,

.

? (, ,

)

,

, .

Internet

.

,

,

. , -

,

. :

,

.

,

,

, ,

,

.

, .

,

IP- (NSFNET, NASA Science

Internet .,

) (

).

NREN .

Internet

,

.

, NREN

.

.

, -

, , .

, -

,

,

. ,

. NREN

,

, ..

Internet.

(National Information Infrastructure, NII).

.

NREN, NREN.

( , ,

), ,

.

NII ,

, , .

, NII

,

,

.

,

, , ,

,

.

.

Internet,

-

,

:

.

NREN,

.

;

, .. .

,

.

,

.

, Internet

,

. , -

. , ,

.

, , ,

-

.

Internet ,

Advanced Networks and Service

(ANS), Performance Systems International (PSI) UUNET.

Internet. ,

.

.

.

.

,

? , Internet, ,

,

. ,

,

, .

,

, - ,

,

.

:

I. - .

II.

,

.

: ,

,

- ,

. ,

,

.

,

.

, ,

, ,

,

.

, , ,

. ,

.

.

, - ,

,

, ,

.

,

, . ,

IP-,

.

,

, .

 

.

, -

, ,

,

, .

( ) .

, , (

) .

, ,

Bitnet (CREN), .

,

.

.

,

. -

- ,

.

.

, -

-,

. ,

.

.

,

,

.

. ,

,

,

.

, ,

-

. , ,

,

-

. ,

,

.

, ,

, ,

. ,

, ,

,

, ,

.

,

, , , .

. ,

Internet ,

. ,

, FTR.

,

.

,

, .

Internet.

,

.

. ,

.

,

.

,

.

, ,

,

.

, Internet.

, Internet

, ,

. Internet,

,

.

; Internet

.

, ,

.

, , ,

.

,

,

:

, ,

.

.

,

. ,

.

,

,

.

,

.

, , .

:

? .

? .

:

,

. ,

Internet.

.

,

,

.

.

,

. ,

,

.

,

,

,

.

,

.

,

.

, .

, ,

, ,

.

.

, .

.

(

).

.

. ,

,

, ..

.

,

-.

. ,

.

,

. ,

,

.

Internet ( ),

, Internet

.

, .

,

. ,

.

,

, . , ,

, .

,

,

, .

:

,

,

. , , ,

,

,

.

Internet.

Internet Internet

, . Internet

, , ,

.

Internet:

? ;

? ;

NREN .

-

Internet . ,

,

,

.

,

, , ,

.

. (

. , ,

: , ,

). ,

-

,

.

. ,

. , ,

- ,

, 300

.

,

.

,

.

.

, . ,

, ,

.

, ,

. , - ,

,

, ,

.

,

.

,

(,

, ).

. -

,

.

,

, .

,

:

? ;

? ;

? ,

;

?

(, -

Internet Worm ;

? .

NREN,

.

Internet.

,

Internet ,

.

. C Internet

,

.

.

:

,

? :

.

,

-

, ,

.

, ,

..

.

, ,

, ,

. ,

.

, ,

, Internet.

Internet

,

.

Internet

-

.

,

,

.

Internet , ,

.

,

.

,

,

. Internet,

,

, ,

,

.

,

.

,

.

,

.

.

Internet

,

,

. ,

.

,

.

: -,

, ,

; -,

,

; -,

, .

Internet, .

,

. ,

,

800.

,

: ASCII - .

Internet

,

,

.. , , :

,

, Internet .

, -

- .

, ,

.

.

, ,

.

,

. , ,

, ,

Internet.

,

. .

, .

, ,

.

Internet, .

, .

Internet .

, -

- ,

(,

A, B, B C ..).

. ,

, , .

, ,

, , ,

.

.

-

. :

- ACME

,

,

-

CERT(Computer

Emergence Response Team,

). ERT

:

, ,

-

. ,

,

.

CERT ,

,

.

-

, CERT :

cert@cert.sei.cmu.edu

.

:

1. .

2. () .

3. ,

.

4. ,

.

, .

. , .

.

, .

, ,

. CERT , 80%

. , ,

, .

, . , ,

,

.

,

.

, :

? ;

? , ;

? ;

? (, QWERTY).

,

,

. , ,

,

FmdIdgad (Franky, my dear, I don't give a damn, .. ,

, ).

,

root, system,

maint .

. -

.

,

, .

, .

: rhosts UNIX FTP. rhosts

.

.rhosts. , :

uxh.cso.uiuc.edu andrey

, ,

,

-

andrey

uxh.cso.uiuc.edu.

, . ,

,

andrey

uxh.cso.uiuc.edu,

.

FTP

. FTP .

, ,

, .

, ,

. (, FTP

.)

.

,

. -

, , , ,

,

. , ,

.

.

, ,

,

.

?

:

? .

Sun, ,

sun.com,

hacker.hoople.usnd.edu.

? , .

.

, .

char,

make .. , (

),

, .

.

? ,

,

,

.

, ,

, ,

- .

? , ,

.

? IBM PC Macintosh,

, Internet.

: , .

; .

,

.

.

.

, -

.

,

.

,

,

(,

) , . ,

,

. (,

Internet Worm)

.

.

, - ,

?

,

,

. ;

,

, , . ,

-

.

.

,

,

.

, ,

,

. -

, .

,

. ,

, , .

,

.

,

-.

,

7.4.3.2 !.

, .

comp.sys. ,

Sun, comp.sys.sun.

, ?

, ?

. ,

. ?

,

. , ,

: Last login 06:31 26 Jan 1997.

,

? , .

, 6

.

.

: , - .

:

? , .

? - .

? , .

,

. -

, . ,

,

:

? ( UNIX /etc/passwd)

,

, .

? ( BSD - UNIX ps

aux; System V ps -el)

, -

.

?

(, ls -la)

,

.

.

, , ,

-

, . ,

, ,

. ,

..

, .

,

( )

, ,

.

- ,

. ,

-.

.

.

.

. ,

,

. , ,

. ,

.

, , ,

.

. .

;

,

. ,

. ,

, , :

,

,

, .

. .

,

,

,

, , .

Internet ?

(Mark Lottor),

(Stanford Research Institute),

Network Wizard,

Internet.

, 828

, 16,1 . 176

.

,

Internet,

,

,

. ,

70%,

,

.

Internet ,

WWW.

1997 408382 75000 1996

.

COM, 3,96 . ,

25%

. COM, EDU, NET, Japan

MIL.

, 89

,

100%.

, .

Internet

: -

.

:

Telnet - .

Internet

. ,

..

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - .

.

-

,

.

NFS (Network File System) - .

-

,

.

-

Internet.

,

.

Internet -

64 .

-

.

Internet

.

-

.

Rsh (Remote Shell) - . Telnet,

,

UNIX.

Rexec (Remote Execution) -

UNIX-.

Lpr - .

() .

Lpq - .

.

Ping - .

Talk - ""

.

.

Iptunnel - NetWare

, Internet.

Whois - Internet.

-

, .

Finger - .

, Internet

-

:

Webster - .

- -

,

- .

-

.

.

- ,

TCP\IP (Fido, Goldnet, AT50).

Internet

-

.

Gopher -

Internet, -

.

Gopher

,

. Internet 2000

Gopher-,

,

.

Gopher

,

.

Gopher,

, . Gopher-

,

.

VERONICA. VERONICA

500 Gopher,

.

WAIS - , Gopher,

-

.

WAIS -

. ,

,

WAIS -.

WAIS ,

.

Internet 300 WAIS - .

,

.

WWW - .

.

.

, ,

, ,

,

.

WWW WAIS,

WWW

, Gopher.

WWW

WAIS WWW ,

.

, ,

, .

WWW - .

-

, Vatican Exibit

" " .

into.funet.fi (); into.cern.ch.

() eies2.njit.edu ().

-.

Internet -

(

) -

. -

.

.

.

.

,

.

Internet.

, Internet

,

Unix. Unix

.

Unix

.

.

.

MS-DOS MS-Windows.

Unix,

Internet.

.

-

,

,

.

,

:

, ,

.

,

Internet, -

.

Internet.

.

.

BBS -

.

Internet .

-

, .

"online",

,

. -

- ,

.

.

-

. ,

-

. 50$.

.

TELEMATE, MTEZ, BITCOM, COMIT, PROCOM.

-

.

.

.

,

,

-

.

-

,

.

(

Unix, VMS)

,

.

.

Unix- .

.

,

.

- NetWare

-

. ,

-,

, Iptunnel, -

.

( MS-DOS),

( ),

.

( aidstest),

- ( Sheriff).

.

, Internet,

. ,

,

, .

Internet , ,

,

XXI .

.

.

Archie - .

Internet.

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) - ,

Internet .

ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) -

-

.

ARPANET - , ,

,

Internet. -

.

Bps (bit per second) - .

.

,

.

Cisco - , Cisco-Systems.

DNS (Domain Name System) - .

Internet IP-.

Ethernet - .

,

2 10 bps (2-10 Mbps).

, -

TCP/IP, Ethernet Internet.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

? .

? ,

.

? ,

.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) - .

Internet

""

.

Gopher - ,

Internet. .

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)-

. -

-

;

.

Internet - .

internet -

.

IP (Internet Protocol) - ,

Internet,

.

I- - 32-

Internet.

Iptunnel - Internet.

NetWare

,

Internet.

Lpr - .

.

Lpq - . .

NetBlazer - , Telebit.

NetWare - , Novell;

-.

NetWare (IPX),

TCP/IP

.

NFS (Network File System) - .

.

NNTP (Net News Transfer Protocol) -

.

.

Ping - .

POP (Post Office Protocol) - " ".

. -

.

PPP (Point to Point Protocol) -

Internet . ,

SLIP.

RAM (Random Acsess Memory) - .

RFC (Requests For Comments) - .

Internet

Internet.

Rexec (Remote Execution) -

UNIX-.

Rsh (Remote Shell) - . Telnet,

,

UNIX.

SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) -

Internet .

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) -

.

SMTP -

,

( 20 - 30 ).

Internet

SMTP.

Talk - Internet.

"" -

.

.

Telnet - .

Internet

.

TCP\IP - TCP\IP

Internet.

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) -

. TCP -

, Internet.

-

(.. ),

.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) - ,

TCP

.

Unix - ,

Internet. -

: Unix-BSD, Unix-Ware, Unix-Interactive.

UUCP - Unix-

. UUCP -

TCP/IP,

Internet.

UUCP - ,

.

VERONICA (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Netwide Index to Computer

Archives) -

Internet .

WAIS (Wide Area Information Servers) -

Internet

.

WWW (World Wide Web) - .

, -

.

Whois - Internet.

Webster - .

.

- ,

-

.

- ,

().

.

, ,

, ,

,

.

- .

(router) - ,

,

.

-

.

.

- .

- ,

.

,

.

- ,

-

.

? ,

. -

-

(-).

? , ,

.

- ,

( , -

..).

- ; . ,

( , )

(, ,

).

- .

,

.

-

Internet.

.

.

NSFNET, 1992 .

FTP

nic.merit.edu ( /nsfnet/acceptable.use.policies/nsfnet.txt).

.

,

. -

, Internet,

.

, NSFNET Internet, ,

.

NSFNET

.

, .. ,

, .

, , ,

; Internet

.

,

,

. Internet -

,

.

NSFNET.

:

? NSFNET

-

,

- ,

-

.

.

:

?

-

, ,

,

.

? ,

.

?

, -

, - ,

,

.

? ,

, -

,

,

, .

? ,

-

.

?

,

.

?

,

.

? ,

, -

.

:

? ,

-

.

? .

NSFNET.

, , NSFNET,

.

NSF

.

.

? INTERNET. . . BHV, .

? PC Magazine Russian Edition.

112 1996 ; 14 1997 .

? . 120 167 1996 ;

180 190 1997 .

? Internet.

? .

? CompUnity 9 1996 .

? Hard 'n' Soft.

? .

? ComputerWorld .

? PC Week Russian Edition.

?

ComputerWeek Moscow.

.

.

, ,

.

.

, 8-

. -

-

, . (

,

8- .) TCP .

- ,

, .

,

,

.

24 1997 .

, NREN , .

.

,

Interim Interagency NREN (

NREN).

, NSFNET,

.

.

,

.

.

.

, .

Internet ,

,

.

.

,

,

NSFNET.

,

..

Internet Worm , Internet

. ,

,

. ,

worm (), -

.

Computer Security Basics (Russell and Gangemi), O'Reilly &

Associates.

Kris Kristofferson and Fred Foster, Me and Bobby McGee, 1969.

, Global Network Navigator.

, -

info@gnn.com.

,

RFC1244

CERT. ,

Computer Security Basics (Russell and Gangemi).

UNIX -

Practical UNIX Security (Garfinkel and

Spafford).

TCP/IP Network Administration

(Craig Hunt, O'Reilly & Associates).

, ,

.

. :

.

, ,

Internet,

.

Internet, Network Wizard,

Internet

Business Development General Magic.

INTERNET. . -513.

42

28

 

 

 Rambler's Top100