2.2 .

. 2

3

STM 4

ATM 5

5

ATM 5

ATM 6

ATM 6

6

6

100VG-AnyLAN 8

8

8

100VG-AnyLAN OSI 9

100VG-AnyLAN 10

100VG-AnyLAN 11

11

Fast Ethernet 12

100BaseT - 10BaseT 12

13

FAST ETHERNET 14

14

100BASET 15

15

Gigabit Ethernet. 16

Gigabit Ethernet. 16

GIGABIT ETHERNET 17

17

18

19

19

19

19

Gigabit Ethernet 20

Gigabit Ethernet UTP 22

Gigabit Ethernet. 22

24

FDDI 25

Fibre Channel 26

frame relay 28

28

FR 28

FR 28

29

FR 30

30

LMI 31

LMI 31

32

33

33

. 36

? 36

37

38

39

? 40

40

42

.

,

, , ,

,

. Ethernet,

, , ,

.

( 100 /) ,

FDDI,

,

, .

:

? FDDI,

, FDDI

II, ,

CDDI,

FDDI . FDDI

100

/.

? 100Base X Ethernet, Ethernet

. -

IEEE802.3.

? 100Base VG AnyLAN, ,

Ethernet Token Ring 100

/

.

? Gigabit Ethernet. Ethernet Fast

Ethernet.

? ATM, ,

, .

25 622 / 2.488

/.

? Fibre Channel,

,

, .

-

,

,

-

. 133

(

).

, FFOL (FDDI Follow

on LAN),

ANSI, FDDI

2.4 /.

- .

. ATM

. - ,

. 48 5 .

,

.

(,

, 64 ,

,

32 ).

, .

-

, .

. ,

, .

,

(Quality of Service - QoS )

. QoS

, ,

.

- , , ,

.

,

.

,

QoS, ,

.

.

,

,

, .

,

(

, , ).

-

,

. , ,

" ?", , ,

.

- LAN

emulation

(LANE). LANE "-"-

,

,

IP (

IPX). LANE :

(LAN emulation configuration service - LECS), (LAN

emulation server - LES),

(Broadcast and

Unknown Server - BUS)

(LAN emulation client - LEC).

LANE ,

LECS.

,

LECS,

.

LES.

LES ELAN (emulated LAN).

BUS- "

- ",

BUS , ,

.

,

LEC. LEC

, ,

IP.

LANE Ethernet,

. ELAN

.

ELAN, ,

Ethernet,

1516 , ELAN

9180 . LEC.

LEC BUS.

BUS

,

LEC.

, ,

Ethernet-,

.

48

,

90,5% .

,

- 140 /.

-

BUS LECS.

, -

LANE.

. ,

, ,

,

.

ATM -

(Asynchronous Transfer Mode), Adobe Type Manager

Automatoc Teller Machine,

.

25-50 /

.

( 155

/)

.

ATM STM (Synchronous Transfer Mode),

,

.

STM.

STM

STM ,

, ,

.

,

,

, ,

"".

STM

,

.

, ,

1 N.

. (

- 1 ), .

. ,

. N, M

.

STM

.

.

, ,

? ,

,

. ,

. ,

,

(M*N)

.

ATM

.

:

- , ,

(,

);

- , ,

( , ,

).

,

,

. , ,

,

, , ,

.

, ,

,

. ,

.

,

STM .

ATM AT&T

. (,

ATM.)

,

.

, ,

.

: "

".

,

STM.

ATM "

"

(Virtual Circuit Identifier - VCI),

STM.

, ,

-

.

. ,

(

- 10

1), ,

.

.

. ,

STM,

ATM.

ATM

- ,

,

( IEEE 802.x FDDI).

ATM,

,

.

,

, ATM.

,

.

.

"", ,

.

ATM

ATM, ANSI,

53 .

5 , 48 -

. 24

VCI, 8 - , 8

. 48 4

ATM, 44 - .

ATM , ,

Ethernet.

.

ATM

ATM ISO - -

. ,

, ATM

, ,

ATM. ,

ATM

ISO . -

TCP/IP ,

.

, ATM,

,

ATM.

"

ATM",

ATM,

,

,

.

ATM,

. ,

SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) -

.

: 51,

155, 622 2400 /,

(Synchronous Digital Hierarchy - SDH). SDH ,

,

,

.

- ATM ,

, .

, ,

,

,

, ,

, , , .

. :

. ,

, -

,

.

, ATM

, , ,

, .

TCP/IP

ATM

,

TCP

IP

ATM

ATM

ATM

(SONET)

ATM

100VG-AnyLAN

1993 AT&T Hewlett-Packard

IEEE 802.12,

100BaseVG.

IEEE 802.3 (

100BaseT, Ethernet ).

IBM

Ethernet

Token Ring. - 100VG-AnyLAN.

,

.

Ethernet,

Token Ring, ,

,

.

.

-

,

.

.

100VG-AnyLAN

(

),

,

. ,

.

100VG Ethernet Token Ring,

, (

,

). - ,

.

.

,

.

1024 ,

-

- 250 .

-

.

,

,

Ethernet Token Ring.

100VG-AnyLAN Token Ring-Ethernet.

100VG-

Ethernet Ethernet (10 /)

.

IEEE 802.1D

.

. 100Base-T Ethernet ,

. ,

-

; . ,

.

""

- 5B6B NRZ - (

). ,

(

20%), .

, Token Ring,

,

( , ).

.

, .

,

- 100

200

.

.

.

,

.

100VG ,

2.5

.

. 100VG-AnyLAN

(

). , ,

.

: "" "".

""

. "" -

(

).

,

: .

, ,

- .

,

.

, ,

. ,

,

,

.

100VG-AnyLAN OSI

IEEE 802.12, 100VG-AnyLAN

(2- ISO)

(1- ISO).

:

(LLC -

Logical Link Control) (MAC - Medium

Access Control).

OSI

.

,

,

, .

Ethernet Token Ring.

- -

, .

- -

,

(IEEE 802.3 802.5). ,

,

.

MAC- :

,

.

- Demand Priority Protocol (DPP) -

100VG-AnyLAN MAC-. DPP

.

,

. ,

"".

(, ), , , .

"".

, .

, ,

-

,

.

, , .

, , ,

.

. ,

,

,

,

.

.

, ,

, ,

.

, ,

200-300

, .

, ,

. ,

,

,

.

.

.

, - .

,

(, ,

), .

.

.

. ,

,

,

( ),

.

100VG-AnyLAN

IEEE-802.12

: IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet), IEEE 802.5 (Token Ring)

IEEE 802.3.

,

.

,

.

Ethernet Token Ring

(

, - ).

:

Ethernet , Token Ring -

.

Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) :

DA - (6 );

SA - (6 );

L - (2 );

;

FCS - .

Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) .

100VG-AnyLAN , ,

4 16 / (

):

- (1 , );

FC - (1 , );

DA - (6 );

SA - (6 );

RI - (0-30 );

;

FCS - (4 ).

100VG-AnyLAN

ISO

. , , ,

.

(NRZ-),

, - . -,

, . ,

- .

5B6B,

, .

(

)

.

, 20%

. 30 25

/

,

100

/.

, ,

(

),

,

.

:

, .

.

.

.

, ,

.

Fast Ethernet

Ethernet, , .

.

,

, -

. -

Ethernet , ,

.

, Fast Ethernet

CSMACD (Carrier

Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection -

).

. Ethernet

,

, ,

-

. ,

.

, ,

, .

,

.

, ,

,

.

- Ethernet, Fast Ethernet

10 100 /.

,

,

. Ethernet

70%

, ,

.

Ethernet 1516 ,

,

. , Ethernet

,

, . ,

Fast Ethernet

100

.

Ethernet ,

, .

.

. "jam" ,

, ,

"jam" .

, Ethernet

,

.

. ,

,

.

,

Ethernet. Ethernet-

, ,

.

, ,

.

,

.

.

100BaseT - 10BaseT

Fast Ethernet 1992 .

Fast Ethernet (Fast Ethernet

Alliance, FEA). FEA

Fast Ethernet

802.3

(Institute

of Electrical and Electronic

Engineers, IEEE),

Ethernet.

:

1995

, Fast Ethernet

802.3u.

IEEE Fast Ethernet 100BaseT.

: 100BaseT

10BaseT

10 / 100

/. 100BaseT

CSMA/CD (Carrier

Sense Multiple Access

with Collision Detection), 10BaseT.

, Fast Ethernet

, .

,

100BaseT

10BaseT.

100BaseT ,

Fast Ethernet

. Fast Ethernet

, Ethernet,

, 100BaseT 10BaseT

,

.

, 100BaseT

Ethernet,

,

, Ethernet

. , 100BaseT

,

Ethernet. ,

.

,

.

,

CSMA/CD, ,

. ISO/OSI CSMA/CD

(Media Access Control, MAC).

,

, ,

(

) .

CSMA/CD : Carrier Sense Multiple

Access Collision

Detection. ,

, .

CSMA,

"" , ,

- .

(carrier tone),

-

, .

,

. ,

, .

Collision Detection - -

,

.

CSMA,

,

, .

, , ,

,

.

( ),

. Collision Detection ,

. ,

,

.

FAST ETHERNET

CSMA/CD,

100BaseT ,

- ,

Ethernet, .

Fast

Ethernet: 100BaseTX,

100BaseT4 100BaseFX. 100BaseTX 100BaseT4

,

100BaseFX .

100BaseTX UTP STP.

, .

:

EIA/TIA-568 UTP 5 STP 1 IBM. 100BaseTX

,

-

.

, 100BaseTX,

5, .

( 3). ,

(punchdown blocks),

,

5. ,

.

100BaseT4

.

, 100BaseT4

: , ,

, . , 100BaseT4 ,

. 100 / ,

100BaseT4

,

.

100BaseT4 UTP 3 5,

UTP 5

STP 1.

100BaseT4

.

3 4 , , ,

,

5, .

, 100BaseT4

.

Fast Ethernet

62.5-

125- . 100BaseFX

- Fast Ethernet

.

100BaseFX:

,

.

Fast Ethernet Ethernet,

10BaseT

100BaseT -

.

Fast Ethernet

250 ;

10 Ethernet (2500

).

CSMA/CD

100/.

,

, ,

.

Ethernet 10 / ( 10Base5)

,

,

, 512- (

Ethernet)

. Ethernet

10 / 2500 (. . 1).

, 512- ( 802.3u

, 802.3, 512 ),

Fast Ethernet,

250 ,

(. . 2).

250 ,

-

,

, , .

100BaseT 250 (. .3).

,

. ,

100 ; Fast Ethernet, 10BaseT,

100.

() ,

.

.

. ,

100BaseFX

,

450

. 100BaseFX,

.

100BASET

, , Fast Ethernet

, 100BaseT ,

,

100BaseT.

, 100BaseT,

Ethernet

10/100 /. (

100BaseT)

10 / 100 /.

,

100BaseT, 100BaseT.

10/100

, ,

100/.

( , )

100BaseT, , ,

100BaseT.

10BaseT,

,

10BaseT.

100BaseT

10/100, , 100BaseT,

10BaseT.

, , , , Fast

Ethernet

. ,

-

, Fast Ethernet

.

,

100BaseT

50-

-

, , 10BaseT. ,

10BaseT.

Gigabit Ethernet.

Gigabit Ethernet - Ethernet ?

, , Gigabit Ethernet

Alliance ,

, CSMA/CD,

, Gigabit Ethernet

Fast Ethernet

, Fast Ethernet Ethernet. ( , ,

Hewlett-Packard ,

100VG-AnyLAN, Fast Ethernet.)

, Ethernet

,

,

, Gigabit

Ethernet -

(, ,

, ).

, Gigabit Ethernet

. ,

,

.

Gigabit Ethernet.

IEEE, ,

802.3z

Gigabit Ethernet Task Force.

,

, ,

.

,

, - , Dataquest.

,

Gigabit Ethernet

1997 ,

.

Gigabit Ethernet

(differential mode delay, DMD)

.

,

.

( )

, ,

Gigabit Ethernet.

Cisco Systems

.

,

.

, - ,

Cisco. -

.

, 3Com, ,

Gigabit Ethernet.

,

Gigabit Ethernet 3Com ,

.

,

56-

, - . -

,

. ,

Gigabit Ethernet,

, -

. ,

,

,

.

, Gartner Group,

,

Gigabit Ethernet, ,

,

. ,

Gigabit Ethernet,

-

,

.

GIGABIT ETHERNET

IEEE 802.3z

Gigabit Ethernet. ANSI

X3T11 Fibre Channel, ,

: FC-0 ( ) FC-1

(

). Fibre

Channel

1,062 . Gigabit Ethernet

1,25

. 8B/10B

1 /.

Gigabit Ethernet

:

1000BaseLX

,

1000BaseSX

,

150- 1000BaseCX

.

100-

5

.

,

IEEE 1997 .

1000BaseT

5 100 (. .

200

, 100BaseT). 803.2ab.

, Fibre Channel, ,

,

, .

1 -

(

)

1000BaseSX

(850 )

220 (62,5 ); 500 (50

)

1000BaseLX

(1300 )

: 550 (62,5

);550 (50 )

: 5 (9 )

1000BaseCX

(STP/)

25

1000BaseT

4-

5

100

(. 1).

( 1998 .)

IEEE

802.3z ,

(Differential Mode Delay, DMD).

()

.

,

. ,

, .

,

,

.

(jitter) ,

802.3z Task Force

.

,

,

,

.

.

Gigabit Ethernet -

.

Ethernet Fast Ethernet

2 10BaseT 200 100BaseT.

Ethernet -

,

( - time slot) CSMA/CD -

Gigabit Ethernet

20 . ,

"

",

802.3z ,

200 . MAC

Gigabit

Ethernet, 200

, 64 .

(carrier

extension).

. Gigabit Ethernet

512

, , . .

.

, :

(jam signal)

(back-off algorithm).

, , ()

(64

), 12,5%

(125 / 100

/). , ,

200-500 ,

300-400

/. , - ,

.

Gigabit Ethernet

( , " ",

"bursting", ,

,

()).

.

,

,

.

AMD ,

Gigabit Ethernet

720 /

(. 2).

(

) ,

CSMA/CD

.

,

,

CSMA/CD . ,

,

. ,

72-

2 /.

,

,

.

(

)

.

, IEEE

802.3.

Ethernet,

;

Ethernet,

,

.

.

Gigabit Ethernet.

802.3, ,

,

. .

()

,

" " (pause frame)

.

.

,

.

, Gigabit Ethernet

, ,

Gigabit Ethernet

.

Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet

, Fast

Ethernet.

Gigabit Ethernet

.

-

Fast Ethernet

FDDI. , ,

, , -

,

( , FDDI),

. ,

( ),

.

Gigabit Ethernet,

,

( Alteon Networks, Extreme Networks, Foun-dry Networks, Packet

Engines Prominet)

, (3Com, Bay Networks, Cabletron, Cisco

Systems).

-

(wire-speed throughput)

.

- , Ace-

Switch Alteon - .

Ace-Switch 10/100 /

Gigabit Ethernet,

- 2,5 /. "

", -

Gigabit Ethernet ,

DynCorp.

,

,

,

Predictive Systems.

" , - . -

?

?

?"

,

. " Gigabit Ethernet

; ,

", - -.

, Rapid City Communications (

Bay), Extreme

Foundry,

.

- , Pro-minet -

.

, ,

LAN, ,

,

MAC-.

,

, , -

,

.

QoS RSVP (Resource Reservation

Protocol)

Gigabit Ethernet? ,

. "RSVP

;

,

", -

-.

, . Internet

Engineering Task Force

RSVP QoS ATM,

. "

", - . , QoS ,

.

Gigabit Ethernet 1998

.,

,

,

.

,

,

.

Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet (GE) .

Ethernet 10 100

/

, Ethernet 1 /

,

. Gigabit Ethernet

Ethernet. GE-

,

, ,

.

Gigabit Ethernet,

1997 ., ,

.

: (network interface card - NIC)

Gigabit Ethernet,

Ethernet- 100 / 1 /,

, ,

.

.

1 /

, NIC

-.

GE-

.

, . 32-

PCI

1 /,

64- PCI

(2 /).

,

.

100%

,

. Gigabit Ethernet

RISC-,

, .

,

.

.

.

,

.

,

.

,

.

,

.

Gigabit Ethernet ,

,

.

:

GE-, -

.

,

Fast Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet , ,

/c. , ,

Fast Ehternet,

.

.

Gigabit Ethernet

10 100 /.

, , , ,

.

,

(quality-of-service -

QoS),

, Gigabit Ethernet.

GE-

,

,

.

QoS

Real-time Transfer Protocol Resource Reservation

Protocol .

GE-

,

,

.

. Gigabit

Ethernet

,

,

.

Gigabit Ethernet

QoS

- ( )

. ,

,

.

Gigabit Ethernet,

Ethernet,

.

Gigabit Ethernet UTP

,

(unshielded twisted pair - UTP).

(ISO 11801),

100 .

,

,

-

. ,

1000 / ,

100 ,

;

.

Gigabit Ethernet.

Ethernet,

Gigabit Ethernet,

.

,

, Gigabit Ethernet ,

,

.

, ,

.

Gigabit Ethernet

.

.

,

, ,

.

-

,

,

Ethernet, . ,

, Gigabit Ethernet

Ethernet.

. Gigabit

Ethernet, ,

, ,

.

Gigabit Ethernet?

, ,

1998 .

,

. ,

.

,

,

, 100

/.

1998 ,

, .

80

Gigabit Ethernet

Alliance.

, - .

.

, ,

, 80%

Gigabit Ethernet.

, ,

40 (

). ,

. ,

, .

,

.

Gigabit Ethernet? ,

Fast Ethernet,

. ,

,

Fast Ethernet. ,

,

- , ,

.

ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode -

), .

,

Ethernet , ?

, ,

ATM, . ,

Gigabit Ethernet.

Gigabit Ethernet

, , , .

, Gigabit Ethernet

Fast Ethernet,

,

.

.

,

,

,

,

.

. ,

, 1 ,

.

- . ,

,

. ,

.

- .

Gigabit Ethernet , ,

,

. ,

.

.

802.3 ""

,

. Ethernet,

Fast Ethernet Gigabit

Ethernet. ,

,

.

Gigabit Ethernet QoS,

,

ATM. ,

RSVP RTP,

Gigabit Ethernet, , ,

, ,

.

IEEE 802.1q

(Virtual LAN, VLAN), 802.1p - ,

.

, ,

, , . "

RSVP,

", - ,

Foundry Networks.

RSVP .

.

802.3 ,

,

Gigabit Ethernet.

802.3z

CSMA/CD Gigabit Ethernet,

200 .

64 512 .

512 ,

.

, Gigabit Ethernet

3Com, "

,

, Gigabit

Ethernet".

,

, (Differential

Mode Delay).

Gigabit Ethernet 802.3z

Gigabit Ethernet

.

Gigabit Ethernet 260,

440 550 ,

. 3

.

. ()

Gigabit Ethernet, ()

Gigabit Ethernet .

-

.

, Gigabit Ethernet ( 64

1500 ),

Ethernet Fast Ethernet.

Ethernet

1500 9000 .

- (jumbo-frames),

Alteon Networks.

,

, , ,

FDDI. -

.

FDDI

Fiber Distribution Data Interface FDDI

80-

.

10 / ,

. , FDDI

.

-

.

Ethernet FDDI ,

.

100 , .

FDDI Token Ring!

Token Ring ,

.

FDDI - .

,

.

,

.

,

,

20000 ,

4500 ,

Ethernet. ,

, Ethernet,

1516 .

FDDI - .

.

.

.

,

,

.

, .

FDDI

,

99% .

FDDI.

Fibre Channel

, ,

,

. ,

,

- ,

. , ,

, ,

,

, .

. ,

,

.

-

. ,

-

100 /,

(1024768, 32 , 30 /)

755 /.

, , ,

,

, ,

, ,

. :

,

. , ,

.

,

.

,

Fibre Channel (FC).

Fibre Channel IBM, Sun

HP Fibre

Channel Association.

FC - , ,

.

.

.

, FC

IP.

,

.

100 / -

1/. - 10 .

,

,

.

- FC

FDDI

IP. SCSI,

. , FC-

FC, .

FC- .

,

. ,

.

1 -

.

2 - ,

.

3 -

.

, Intermix.

,

, .

, ,

.

FC-, , .

, ,

. -

-.

, " " (Arbitrated Loop),

,

.

,

.

, ATM FDDI.

FC . ,

, FC,

.

frame relay

(frame relay, FR) -

() (

).

FR

(ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Networks),

, FR

(

,

).

, ,

,

.

FR

:

Frame Relay Forum (FRF) - ,

300

, 3Com, Northern

Telecom, Digital, Cisco, Netrix,

Ascom Timeplex, Newbridge Networks, Zilog .; American National

Standards Institute (ANSI,

);

(ITU-T).

( )

,

-

.

. ( FRF)

,

ANSI,

FRF.

1992 . FRF

FRF.

FR

FR -

""

-

HDLC (High

Level Data Link Control). FR

HDLC;

HDLC FR (

HDLC ).

FR (.1)

.

1. frame relay.

FR HDLC ,

(

, HDLC).

. -

() . , FR

.

FR

FR HDLC

.

, ,

. ,

FR,

- .

FR ,

. , -

:

;

;

;

FCS;

( ,

FCS);

DLCI;

(

FR ,

).

FR :

""

;

DLCI

;

-

(

).

FR

(Local

Management Interface - LMI). LMI ( )

UNI.

FR FR (" FR")

FR- -

/ FR (FR assembler/disassembler, FRAD).

,

FR

, :

""

(, );

( )

;

,

.

,

FR, :

FR ( );

,

FR;

(Committed Information

Rate, CIR),

;

(Committed Burst Size, Bc)

-

;

(Excess Burst Size, Be) -

.

.

( )

PVC.

FR " "

.

( )

CIR, .

CIR,

, DE

"1",

(

, ). ,

, - .

,

.

( )

DE,

"1".

CIR "0".

DE

"1".

FR

DLCI FR

; ,

. ,

(

),

DLCI.

, DLCI ,

PVC.

FR

.

DLCI

.

FR (ANSI, ITU-T) DLCI

:

0 - (LMI);

13/415 - ; 1

63/4991 - PVC SVC;

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