INTERNET

 

 

INTERNET

eioa?ana Internet

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Internet .

Internet ,

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Internet, ,

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Internet

, Internet

[1]. , "

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, .

RPANET,

1969 . Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN)

(ARPA)

. ARPANET ,

.

 

, ( )

.

ARPANET

.

,

 

, ,

. ARPANET

,

.

. - ,

.

, ,

. -

-

, .

Internet TCP/IP (Transmission Control

Protocol/Internet Protocol). IP ,

TCP

.

1974 . (Robert Kahn),

ARPANET, -

(Vinton C. Cerf). Society - CNRI.

, TCP/IP ,

 

. Internet

, .

- (OSI).

(ISO)

OSI . ,

, Internet

. , BITNET - ,

, , ,

Internet.

Internet ;

 

,

.

.

Internet

.

,

.

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,

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,

.

- 2,5 /

 

45 /. T1 1,544 /,

T3 - 45 /.

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,

.

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;

,

.

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22 500 ,

.

.

- VSAT.

Internet

FTP Telnet.

-

, .

, FTP(File Transmission Protocol).

, ,

" FTP",

,

.

( Telnet)

. Telnet

.

, -

. ,

, .

Internet

Internet,

. "The Matrix: Computer Networks

and

Conferencing Systems Worldwide" (Digital Press, 1990)

(John

S.Quarterman) Internet ",

,

TCP/IP,

 

".

, Internet

, .

ANSnet (Advanced Network & Services

Network), NSFNET

ANS CO+RE. Commercial Internet..

.

,

, ,

. EBONE,

IP-, NORDUnet, EUROPANet

EUnet, .

, ,

. , ,

 

, ,

.

.

Internet

, Internet, ,

 

. ARPANET, ,

-

,

.

 

,

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"". Internet ""

,

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.

Internet

- Internet ,

,

.

: ,

.

: 2,500 Internet ,

, .

: ,

, .

:

.

: http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/InternetInd ex/

:

Yahoo!

: Internet-,

, , , , ,

 

, WWW-,

email-(

).

: : (URLs)

Internet- .

: Yahoo

, , Usenet

Email-.

. Boolean (, )

. : Yahoo!

, Alta Vista,

 

,

Yahoo!.

Yahoo! Alta

Vista, Yahoo!

. ,

.

, , "tip search"(TS) -

"": Yahoo! ,

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,

( ,

)

.

:

.

: http://www.yahoo.com/

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,

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), ,

, .

,

 

.

,

Alta Vista, .

Alta Vista

: WWW-

Usenet News().

: 31 WWW-( 1997 .)

14,000 newsgroups

.

: (simple (S)) (much more advanced

(MMS)),.. , . S -

, MMS -

.

(Simple Search Help). MMS -

(boolean), ..

, (and, or, not - (, , ))

 

(near - ())

,

,

.

TS - : : " "

, WWW -

" ".

: (

):

1) ""("Standard") -

, , URL - ,

.

,

2) ""("Compact")

,

3) ""("Detailed"),

"".

: http://altavista.digital.com

: WWW-.

Excite

: WWW- , , , "yellow

pages" (" "),

, , , , Email

, .

: 50 WWW-

Usenet .

: S - ,

MMS - .

TS - : (+) ,

, (-)

,

.

oolean-.

"AND", "OR" and "AND NOT"(, )

. : (digital or

virtual or

electronic) AND library.

( ) .

: ,

, URL - ,

,

, "More Like This"(" "),

 

.

: http://www.excite.com/

: - WWW-.

Hot Bot

: WWW-.

: 54 WWW-( 1996 .).

: S - (Expert ())- ,

boolean- ( ), , "

"" URL ". - ,

( ..)

TS - :

(, " ").

: ,

, URL, .

: http://www.hotbot.com/

: WWW- ("Slurp").

Infoseek

: WWW-,

, , , ("yellow pages"),

email

, ..

: : 50 URL-. (

1996 .)

: S - ,

(

),

(

"-")

( " +

").

,

. Infoseek-(Infoseek Help).

: , , URL,

, ,

.

: http://www.infoseek.com/

: WWW-.

:

. http://info.infoseek.com/.

Lycos

: WWW-, ,

, "top 5% sites"

: 70 URL- ( 1997.).

: S - ( Custom () ) . -

boolean- AND OR ( ),

.

: ;

(URL), , ,

 

.

: http://www.lycos.com/

: WWW-.

Internet

World Wide Web (WWW),

". , ,

(CERN).

,

 

.

WWW ,

(web-).

,

,

, , ..

.

WWW HTTP (Hyper Text

Transmission Protocol), ,

Internet

(browser).

:

Navigator Netscape Internet Explorer

Microsoft.

 

,

.

Netscape Microsoft

.

URL (Uniform Resurce Locator) -

:

http://www.microsoft.com - Microsoft

http://www.netscape.com - Netscape.

,

Netscape Navigator 3.0 Internet Explorer 3.0 ). ,

"hardware",

.

Explorer 3.0 (

Microsoft) ActiveX -

,

200 . . . ActiveX

, ,

 

, .

ActivX-

. Netscape

"COBRA",

UNIX-. Ncompass

ActivX-.

HTML-

, Explorer template-,

web-. Explorer

, .

Internet

Explorer : HTML,

HTTP, CSS1 , PICS, POP3, SMTP, Java. Explorer

.

Netscape, ,

( 56 ) .

Microsoft

:

((ActiveX, RealAudio ActiveMovie) Netscape

plug-ins, .

, [2]:

web-,

Java-, Microsoft , Navigator

30 ,

 

:

"...the Java engine in Internet Explorer 3.0 blows Navigator out of

the water." -

c|net (: ,, Internet Explorer 3.0 Navigator

'').

" , , Microsoft- Java

(Just In Time (JIT))

Netscape-..." - PC Magazine.

"Internet Explorer Navigator Java-,

 

PC Magazine. Internet Explorer

11 ." - PC Week

c|net Tests:

http://www.cnet.com/Content/Reviews/Compare/Betabrowse/javass.html.

PC Magazine Tests:

http://www.pcmag.com/IU/bcentral/reviews/rv-ie3_6.html.

Pendragon Tests:

http://www.webfayre.com/battle.html.

PC Week Tests:

http://www.pcweek.com/reviews/0819/20mnav.html.

Internet Explorer 128 bit ,

SSL (Secure Socket Layer), PCT (Private Communication

Technology),

SSL, Microsoft Authenticode.

Microsoft, Authenticode

.

PCT SSL2,

SSL3.

Internet Explorer -

ActiveMovie ,

"" web- -

(.WAV, .AU, .AIFF, MIDI, .WAV, QuickTime, MPEG).

HTML email- Explorer-

, .

Internet Explorer

: Windows 95, Windows NT, Windows 3.1, Macintosh

UNIX. 3.0: Windows 95 Windows

NT 2.1. 3.0 Macintosh, UNIX Windows 3.1

.

Netscape Navigatora ,

MS Internet Explrera,

. , ,

Explorer- [3]:

Netscape Navigator 3,2

Microsoft Explorer 3,0

3,539 Mb

5,285 Mb

Java

Java

Java JIT

Java JIT

JavaScript

JavaScript

LiveConnect

VB Script

Plug-in

LiveAudio&LiveVideo

ActiveX

Mail&News

Internet Mail&News(979Kb)

3,539 Mb

6,264 Mb

Mail&

Mail&News

News(6,264 Mb)

CoolTalk

NetMeeting

Live3D

(2.020Mb)

VRML(1956)Mb

Active Movie(634Kb)

5,773 Mb

10,874 Mb

1. 44 Explorer.

2. 39 . Netscape Navigator

16 . Navigator Gold

WYSING HTML ,

web-. Navigator 3,0

 

CoolTalk,

Internrt .

.

Navigator-, :

.

: Windows 95; Windows NT 5.51, 4.0; Windows 3.1, 3.11;

Mac/OS (68 K); Mac/OS (Power PC); Dec Alpha (OSF/1, 2.0, 3.2);

Hewlett-Packard

(HP-UX 9.03, 9.05, 10); IBM RS/6000 (AIX 3.25); Silicon Grafics

(IRIX 5.2, 5.3);

Sun Spark (Solaris 2.3, 2.4, 2.5); Sun Spark (SunOS 4.1.3); BSDI

Unix; SCO Unix;

Caldera Lenux; Sony MIPS- Unix; Nec MIPS- Unix.

( web-)

Netscape :

( )

Netscape

Microsoft

(%)

Navigator 3,0

Explorer

3,0

5

b:

home.netscape.com/newsref/std/one/i

ndex.html

1,6

1,9

18 %

5

Kb:

home.netscape.com/comprod/one/whi

te_paper.html

11,3

12,8

14 %

():

www.nytimes.com

1,8

2,3

27 %

www.sgi.com

2,9

4,5

53 %

www.disney.com

1,6

3,1

90 %

www.apple.com

2,1

3,6

60 %

www.citicorp.com

2,2

3,5

47 %

www.ibm.com

2,7

4,0

49 %

www.symantec.com

2,5

3,7

65 %

www.walmart.com

1,8

3,0

65 %

www.whitehouse.gov

4,2

3,0

45 %

:

39 %

Navigator 3,0

, VRML (Virtyal Reality Modeling

Language)- - .

,

, web-

. ,

 

3D-.

: AIFF, AU, MIDI WAV

,

.

(AVI) "

".

Navigator 3,0

,

QuickTtime-(.MOV)

, , , .

, , "" .

2,0, Navigator 3,0 HTML

, - ,

, .

JavaScript- GIF JPEG

" " "plug-ins"

,

. Navigator 3,0 Java-

: Windows 95,Windows NT, Macintosh, UNIX,

 

IBM AIX BSDI. Java-

 

Latin-1, ,

Latin-2 - , ,

.

Netscape Navigator 128-

. RC4-128, Navigator RC2, DES,

Triple

DES, . DES

Triple DES 56- 168- .

Netscape Navigator

Netscape Administration Kit ( "")

.

.

Navigator (LiveConnect),

: Navigator

plug-ins,

Java JavaScript.

web-, Java-

JavaScript

.

: ,

,

.

,, " ,,C" [4]:

Netscape ,

- Netscape .

Internet

Explorer Microsoft

. Explorer Navigator

 

, ,

.

Netscape Microsoft HTML,

World Wide Web.

.

.

, , - ,

CyberManagement. ,

Microsoft, Netscape

,

,

. Netscape

Communicator ,

Navigator 4.0. Communicator ,

. Microsoft,

, Internet Explorer 4.0

Windows.

Microsoft Netscape .

( ),

.

, , , ,

.

. Netscape

, Microsoft ,

.

Web,

Web-,

. ,

,

Internet,

.

HTML , ,

, .

,

- Internet-.

.

 

,

,

.

, .

 

. WWW HTML (Hyper

 

Text Makeup Language) ,,.htm''

ASCII-.

- ( MultiEditor, Norton Editor,

Word,

, ,,.doc"),

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,

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.

-,

:

http://www.ucsa.uiuc.edu/~mag/work/HTMLEditors

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,

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ftp://193.25.152.10

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web-;

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,

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Internet

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FTP (File Transmission Protocol).

IP- [5].

IP- - ,

 

Internet. IP-

( 255

),

. 192.33.33.22 - IP-,

138.40.11.1.

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, ,

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: .

, ,

liberty.uc.wlu.edu ( ).

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,

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(Domain Name Server - DNS),

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, .

,

: com - , . .

 

; edu -

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. ; gov -

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; net - , ;

org -

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isoc.org.

.com, .edu, .gov .mil

 

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. - .de,

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.us.

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ASCII

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GhostView.

, Internet

,,''

.

1. // Internet.-.-- BHV.-

1995.-.33.

2. How the browsers compare//http://www.microsoft.com

3. Netscape Navigator 3.0 Review Guide//http://www.netscape.com

/comprod/products/navigator/version_3.0/review.html.

/ie/press/NSCPrev.html.

4. .// .-.-1997.-1.-.31.

5. // Internet.-.-- BHV.-

1995.-.50.

6. // Internet.-.-- BHV.-

1995.-.100.

1.

.............................................................................................1

2. .

..............................................7

3.

...........................................................................................14

4.

....................................................23

5.

........................................................................................28

6.

..........................................................................................29

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