c

 

 

c

.

2

1. C TCP/IP 7

1.1. TCP/IP 7

1.2. IP INTERNET 9

1.3. 11

1.4. TCP/ IP 14

2. WINDOWS 21

2.1 TCP/IP WINDOWS 21

2.2. TSP/IP 26

2.3. TCP 27

2.4. TCP SEQUENCE NUMBER 28

2.5. 31

2.6. 32

2.7. 33

. 36

. 40

. ,

,

.

.

, ,

( ,

, ),

. UNIX

, .

.

TCP/IP ,

Internet. TCP/IP

,

Internet, ,

.

TCP IP. 1969 DAPRA

. ,

APRANET,

.

-

, .

TCP/IP. 1983 TCP/IP

(MIL STD), DAPRA

TCP/IP UNIX.

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,

.

,

DARPA

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.

(

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"internet").

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) "nodes"( ). TCP/IP

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.

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1.1 TCP/IP

TCP/IP

Internet. TCP/IP

,

.

TCP/IP ,

.

1. hardware

 

.

2. network interface ( )

,

. ,

TCP/IP,

,

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,

.25 Frame Relay.

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(

)

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IP

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IP IP . IP

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.

Internet

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. TCP/IP

IP . IP

IP

.

TCP/IP , .

,

(host name).

Domian Name System (DNS). , " comsys.ntu

kpi.kiev.ua " DNS IP - 194.44.197.195.

,

, IP - .

TCP/IP PCI Apple

,

. Power Macintosh 9500

PCI , ,

 

,

Internet , .

Power Mac 9500 MacOs, System

7.5.2

Open Transport 1.0 , AppleTalk MacTCP,

,

Macintosh

.

TCP/IP Internet

.

TCP/IP .

1 2

.

IP ,

, IP

.

Internet TCP/IP

 

. , NetWare AppleTalk ,

 

TCP/IP

.

,

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,

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.

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IP .

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.

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InterNIC.

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IP

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,

, NIC,

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.

, nuts.com* penaut.

nuts.com penaut,

penaut.nuts.com . nuts.com

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penaut nuts.com -

 

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.

,

. NIC

,

NIC .

nuts.com sales.nuts.com

 

. ,

peanut.

peanut ,

peanut.sales.nuts.com.

(name server) .

IP -

TCP/IP . Internet ,

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.

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.

.

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TCP/IP .

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2 :

. 1

,

.

,

(default route),

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DOS UNIX

, DOS .

 

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.

UNIX

.

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, ICMP.

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PRT

TSR

SNMP

PCNFS.SYS.TSR

DOS

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DOS. , , PC/NFS

SunSoft.

TCP/IP DOS.

, ,

TCP/IP, .

.

(TSR)

, ,

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AUTOEXEC.BAT.

,

,

DOS,

31h DOS 21h.

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. TCP/IP

 

.

.

,

.

TCP/IP DOS

.

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. ,

,

,

. TCP/IP DOS,

.

DOS .

TCP/IP,

TCP/IP. DOS.

,

. , Microsoft,

Network Device Interface Specification (NDIS),

Novell

Open Datalink Interface (ODI). .

TCP/IP NDIS,

ODI,

 

.

.

TCP/IP

NetWare

TCP/IP

ODI

Novell

IPX

. 2 TCP/IP,

IPX,

ODI.

,

TCP/IP

NetWare .

TCP/IP DOS

:

.

Install

Setup.

,

, .

TCP/IP DOS .

 

UNIX,

TCP/IP DOS .

TCP/IP. TCP/IP

.

TCP/IP : IP ,

 

,

IP .

TCP/IP

.

TCP/IP

BOOTP.

IP

. DOS

, .

.

2 : ,

, , .

TCP/IP ping. ICMP

 

IP . ,

.

:

C: \ ping almond.nuts.com

almond.nuts.com is alive

DOS

TCP/IP.

2. Windows

2.1 TCP/IP Windows

Windows DOS . Windows

-

(GUI ),

DOS . Windows,

DOS. Windows DOS,

. Windows

,

. , TCP/IP DOS,

,

. 3 TCP/IP

Windows:

(TSR)

Windows ,

DOS, Windows .

(DLL)

, ,

. DLL

, , -

Windows .

DOS. TCP/IP , DLL,

 

Windows. (VxD Virtual Device Driver)

TCP/IP Windows.VxD

, Windows.

DOS, VxD ,

 

. VxD DOS.

TSR DOS, Windows.

,

TCP/IP,

. TCP/IP

DLL

VxD- Windows . VxD ,

DLL,

. VxD

-

TCP/IP.

 

,

TCP/IP Windows ,

, .

TCP/IP Windows, .

, Microsoft TCP/IP,

, SPRY -

 

, . Winsock API,

TCP/IP Windows. Winsock

Berkeley TCP/IP socket Microsoft

Windows.

,

.

 

NetWare, ,

TYCP/IP, k UNIX . Microsoft

.

OC

Windows

NT - , .

,

Windows NT

Server. OC NT .

,

TCP/IP,

 

, . BIOS,

/ DOS, ,

/ DOS.

NetBios , / .

.

. NetBios

, ,

.

NetBios

. NetBios

,

TCP/IP.

NetBios over TCP/IP - NetBios

TCP/IP. . ,

NBT, ,

NBT.

, NBT. ,

TCP/IP, NBT.

NetBios

TCP/IP. ,

TCP/IP- Mail,

.

TCP/IP ,

Mail

,

Microsoft

Mail. Windows NT

.

Microsoft

NBT.

LMHOSTS (

) Scope ID (

).

, TCP/IP NT

 

,

TCP/IP.

Windows NT ,

NetBios.

,

TCP/IP. TCP/IP

, .

, ,

,

 

TCP/IP. ,

. TCP/IP ,

 

,

. TCP/IP

( peers). TCP/IP

. TCP/IP ,

. TCP/IP

. TCP/IP ,

RARP, BOOTP.

RARP ,

IP .

RARP,

TCP/IP, TCP/IP

Ethernet.

Ethernet

. RARP ,

IP- .

,

TCP/IP . TCP/IP

.

c BOOTP RFC 951.

BOOTP RARP, ..

BOOTP, RARP . BOOTP

.

, .

BOOTP ,

.

, .

 

DHCP

BOOTP.

TCP/IP.

 

IP- . DHCP

BOOTP .

2.2. TSP/IP

TCP/IP : .

.

.

.

, ,

; , PPP-

UNIX.

,

, .

- ,

,

.

, " ethernet"

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,

.

UNIX - PC DOS Windows (

) .

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), , ,

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.

, ,

,

.

-

TCP/IP-

(, secure shell)

(,

S/KEY). -

UTP, ,

 

.

, . ,

,

( , ..).

- tcpdump .

2.3. TCP

, / , ,

/ TCP/IP-.

,

. ,

(, .

SYN-).

.

 

"" .

TCP/IP , -

.

Unix (

DOS Windows, ),

IP- .

,

.

,

,

. ,

, IP-,

. , ,

.

IP-

.

2.4. TCP sequence number

(Robert T. Morris)

 

Weakness in the 4.2BSD Unix TCP/IP Software - IP

 

spoofing. -

,

, , "" - (

 

rlogin/rsh ).

- , SMTP

.

, TCP- (3-

way handshake): sequence number

(

C-SYN), ,

(C-ACK) sequence number (S-SYN).

 

(S-ACK).

:

. 2.4.1. TCP/IP .

. sequence

number

acknowledge number.

.

, , sequence number (S-

SYN ) .

TCP/IP. , 4.3BSD sequence

 

number,

,

125000. ,

, (,

) sequence number

.

TCP/IP

sequence number,

.

, , A B, ,

B "rlogin A"_ A,

. , C. A

, B C - .

- B ,

.

,

B. ,

,

. -

.

B,

, A ( ).

IP-, ,

A, sequence number .

IP-,

B. A sequence number,

B. B (

 

), , , .

, sequence number B.

"" A, B

S-ACK (,

, sequence number

, A). ,

sequence

number , .

 

IP-,

. ,

rsh,

.rhosts

/etc/passwd

.

, 100% , ,

, - ,

.

.

2.5.

-

"" , .. ,

 

(, telnet IAC

NOP IAC

NOP IAC NOP...). . ,

.

IP Hijacking , ,

,

, ACK-. ,

, ,

ACK-.

... .

( ?)

, .

ACK-

, "

".

, ACK-,

"" - 10MB ethernet

.

SLIP - .

2.6.

. , TCP/IP-,

,

sequence number/acknowledge number.

,

.

,

ACK-.

.

,

. ,

,

.

, ,

TCP/IP- ( - secure shell)

- IPsec).

.

PGP.

,

TCP/IP. , [rfc...],

RST-,

RST-.

.

2.7.

, ,

TCP- , .

-

. , ,

, .

,

,

.

 

.

-

( "passive scan").

TCP/IP SYN- (

-

). TCP-, ,

SYN/ACK-, 3-way

handshake. RST-.

,

, .

SYN/ACK- RST-, ,

( RST-

TCP/IP- ,

 

).

,

TCP/IP- . ,

, ,

SYN_RECEIVED ( ,

RST) RST- SYN/ACK.

, (,

)

 

,

.

firewall

() , .

,

-

,

, , ,

,

.

,

.

. 2.7.1.

, ,

.

Internet,

, , ,

.

, ,

,

, TCP/IP,

. ,

 

,

TCP/IP, , .

,

, ,

.

.

TCP/IP

Internet. Internet

,

Ethernet Token Ring, NSFNET.

"TCP/IP"

, TCP IP.

, .

 

UDP, ARP, ICMP, TEL-NET, FTP

. TCP/IP - ,

internet. IP .

TCP/IP ,

 

, .

. ,

(

)

.

,

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, .

,

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( ).

,

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; .

.

 

 

IP.

,

.

TCP/IP

Internet. TCP/IP

,

Ethernet ,

,

.

:

-TCP/IP .

-IP

. IP

. TCP/IP

, .

 

.

- ,

, .

 

TCP/IP ,

, -

.

TCP/IP

. ,

. TCP/IP

. TCP/IP ,

.

TCP/IP

, ,

. TCP/IP

,

.

TCP/IP ?

,

. ,

.

TCP/IP:

- C ,

 

. TCP/IP

.

- TCP/IP

. TCP/IP

 

: Ethernet, Token-ring, X.25,

..

.

- ,

.

,

, Internet.

- TCP/IP

,

, ,

 

..

.

1. .., .. " " . .

"",1998. 384.

2. .. " " . "

" 1997., - 272.

3. . " TCP/IP"

4. UNIX - 1995.,

5. " " 1995., , 1.4.

6. . "UNIX" ," " 1997.

7. . " " 1 2

" ''

8. .. . .:

, 1997. 158 .

9. . ., . ., . .

. .: , 1996. 124 .

10. .. . - .: , 1993. 256

 

.

1

 

 

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